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Although the number of pollutants emitted has been falling since the 1980s, the air is still contaminated with sulphur dioxide from the mining industry the Soviet Union rapidly developed in the early 1950s. In some areas, coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe industrial complex. The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport in Tallinn is the largest airport in Estonia and serves as a hub for the national airline Nordica, as well as the secondary hub for AirBaltic and LOT Polish Airlines.

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On 24 September, the Soviet Union presented an ultimatum, demanding that Estonia sign a treaty of mutual assistance which would allow Soviet military bases into the country. The Estonian government felt that it had no choice but to comply, and the treaty was signed on 28 September. In May 1940, Red Army forces in bases were set in combat readiness and, on 14 June, the Soviet Union instituted a full naval and air blockade on Estonia. On the same day, the airliner Kaleva was shot down by the Soviet Air Force.

  • Food, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia’s industry.
  • The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was reinstated in 1993.
  • While the religiously unaffiliated divided between 9% as atheists, 1% as agnostics and 35% as Nothing in Particular.
  • Significant quantities of rare-earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore, shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe.
  • In 1917, after the February Revolution, the governorate of Estonia was expanded to include Estonian-speaking areas of Livonia and was granted autonomy, enabling formation of the Estonian Provincial Assembly.
  • The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities.

The first computer centres were established in the late 1950s in Tartu and Tallinn. Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for ministries of the Soviet Union lost primer episodio during the 1980s. As of 2015, Estonia spends around 1.5% of its GDP on Research and Development, compared to an EU average of around 2.0%. The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded. The oldest university is the University of Tartu, established by the Swedish King Gustav II Adolf in 1632.

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European Commission recently initiated infringement proceedings against Estonia for failing to properly implement the environmental impact assessment requirements laid down in EU law when permitting logging at Natura 2000 sites. Foreign media has also drawn attention to increasingly extensive logging in protected Estonian forests. The activities of the Estonian Ministry of the Environment directly violate EU measures to restrict protected forests, in particular the requirements and principles of the European Habitats Directive. Attempts to establish a larger alliance together with Finland, Poland, and Latvia failed, with only a mutual defence pact being signed with Latvia in 1923, and later was followed up with the Baltic Entente of 1934. In the 1930s, Estonia also engaged in secret military co-operation with Finland. Non-aggression pacts were signed with the Soviet Union in 1932, and with Germany in 1939.


Estonia is a unitary country with a single-tier local government system. Since administrative reform in 2017, there are in total 79 local governments, including 15 towns and 64 rural municipalities. All municipalities have equal legal status and form part of a maakond , which is an administrative subunit of the state. Representative body of local authorities is municipal council, elected at general direct elections for a four-year term. For additional decentralization the local authorities may form municipal districts with limited authority, currently those have been formed in Tallinn and Hiiumaa. Estonia co-operates with Latvia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives.

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At a professional level, the traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis. Tiigrihüpe was a project undertaken by the state to heavily invest in the development and expansion of computer and network infrastructure in Estonia, with a particular emphasis on education. The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German, and French.

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Founded in Rome in 2000, the Griffith Film School presents one of the best educational programs concerning films in Italy. An extension you use may be preventing Wikiwand articles from loading properly.

Estonia also has a number of graves from the Viking Age, both individual and collective, with weapons and jewellery including types found commonly throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia. The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. A transition from hunter-fisher subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, and was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC. The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. According to the Constitution of Estonia, Estonian is the sole official language. Noteworthy are the opportunities for internships offered by the school and the production of short films that are presented on Tv channels and festivals.

The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia’s market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area. In 1994, based on the economic theories of Milton Friedman, Estonia became one of the first countries to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. This rate has since been reduced three times, to 24% in January 2005, 23% in January 2006, and most recently to 21% by January 2008.